Smoking and ulcer perforation


Smoking and ulcer perforation.

Svanes C, Soreide JA, Skarstein A, Fevang BT, Bakke P, Vollset SE, Svanes K, Soreide O. Gut 1997; 41:177-180.


Background: The use of ulcerogenic drugs is the only well documented risk factor for peptic ulcer perforation, but accounts for only a quarter of the events. Smoking is a well known risk factor for uncomplicated ulcer disease, and patients with ulcer bleeding have increased death rates from smoking related disorders.

Aim: To assess the role of smoking in ulcer perforation.

Subjects: A total of 168 consecutive patients with gastroduodenal ulcer perforation and 4469 control subjects from a population based health survey.

Methods: The association between ulcer perforation and smoking habits was analysed by logistic regression while adjusting for age and sex.

Results: Current smoking increased the risk for ulcer perforation 10-fold in the age group 15-74 years (OR 9.7, 95% CI 5.9 to 15.8) and there was a highly significant dose-response relationship (p < 0.001). The results were similar in men (OR 9.3, 95% CI 4.9 to 17) and women (OR 11.6, 95% CI 5.3 to 25), and for gastric (OR 10.5, 95% CI 4.5 to 25) and duodenal (OR 8.6, 95% CI 4.9 to 15.4) ulcer perforation. No increase in risk was found in previous smokers (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.2 to 2.2).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that smoking is a causal factor for ulcer perforation and accounts for a major part of ulcer perforations in the population aged less than 75 years.

Mosby, Inc.


By C. Svanes; J.A. Soreide; A. Skarstein; B.T. Fevang; P. Bakke; S.E. Vollset; K. Svanes and O. Soreide

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